The protocol commonly used for domain authentication is the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). LDAP is an application protocol used to access and manage directory information, including user and group authentication data, within a directory service such as Microsoft Active Directory (AD).
When a user attempts to authenticate against a domain controller in an Active Directory environment, the authentication process typically involves the use of LDAP. The user's credentials are transmitted securely to the domain controller using LDAP over a secure channel (such as LDAP over SSL/TLS), and the domain controller validates the user's identity against the stored directory information.
LDAP provides a standardized and widely supported method for querying and managing directory information, making it a popular choice for domain authentication in various directory service implementations, including Active Directory.